July 2008

08MOSCOW1991 2008-07-11 12:12 2010-12-01 21:09 CONFIDENTIAL Embassy Moscow

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C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 03 MOSCOW 001991


E.O. 12958: DECL: 07/11/2018

¶B. MOSCOW 1255

Classified By: Acting Political Counselor Robert Patterson for reasons
1.4 (b/d).

¶1. (C) Summary: The return to Russia of historic properties
in Jerusalem and the West Bank, and the end of the visa
regime for travel to Israel, are the latest indicators of
deepening Russia-Israel relations that depend significantly
upon personal contacts as well as official channels. The
properties, which will be used to establish a Russian
consulate in Jerusalem and cultural and religious centers,
will enhance Russia’s soft power by increasing the Russian
presence at a time when immigration to Israel has declined.
Russia continues to benefit economically from these emigres,
many of whom have established businesses in Israel that trade
with Russia or have returned to their homeland to work in
Russia’s booming economy. The end of the visa regime is
expected to significantly increase personal and economic
contacts between these countries that currently enjoy deep
cultural ties and the strongest political relationship in
their often stormy history. Close ties to Israel do not
appear, however, to have had much impact on Moscow’s
“pragmatic” positions on issues of concern to Tel Aviv, such
as arms sales to Syria. End summary.

Israel and Palestinians Return Russian Property
——————————————— —

¶2. (U) Russia will receive several properties in Jerusalem
and the West Bank from the Palestinian Authority (PA) and
Israeli government, which are returning land that Russia
originally acquired in the nineteenth century for the
construction of Orthodox churches and facilities for Russian
pilgrims to the Holy Land. During a June ceremony, the PA
formally gave Russia ownership of three plots of land in the
West Bank that will be the site of new Russian cultural and
religious centers. Russian and Israeli officials announced
in May that they were close to finalizing the terms for
Russia to take ownership of a large compound in Jerusalem
that includes St. Sergiev Church and an adjacent building
originally used as a religious mission. As one of his last
acts as President, Putin ordered that the GOR provide $4
million to restore the church.

Return to the Holy Land Symbolizes Russian Revival
——————————————— —–

¶3. (C) xxxxx
told us that the return of historically Russian property in
the Holy Land was a symbol of Russia’s post-Soviet cultural
and religious renaissance. The properties, which had either
been abandoned by the USSR or sold to Israel, would be used
for facilities for religious pilgrims and tourists, as well
as Russian language schools and clinics that would benefit
local residents, including the large number of
Russian-speaking Israelis. The MFA was also considering
establishing a consulate at the compound in Jerusalem.
xxxxx said that at present Russia had only its Embassy in
Tel Aviv and a small Mission in Ramallah to handle relations
with the PA. A presence in Jerusalem would help provide
assistance to the many Russian citizens living in Israel as
well as Russian tourists, whose numbers, presently estimated
at 200,000 per year, were expected to grow significantly
after the Russian-Israeli agreement to end visa requirements
became operative in September.

¶4. (C) xxxxx explained that countries in the region
recognized that providing land to Russia was a means to
improve bilateral relations and attract Russian tourists. In
addition to Israel and the PA, Jordan had already given
Russia land on the banks of the Jordan River historically
associated with Jesus’ baptism (ref A). Lebanon also had
property that once belonged to Russia, although discussion of
its return had not begun.

¶5. (C)xxxxx that GOR
interest in the Holy Land property was part of the Russian
desire to “return” to the Middle East in various ways:
politically by resurrecting ties with Arab states that had
been allowed to atrophy during the 1990s, diplomatically by
enhancing its role in the Middle East Peace Process, and
culturally by re-establishing a physical presence for the
Russian State and Church. For Russians, it was only fitting
that the Orthodox Church should have a presence in Jerusalem
along with the other ancient Christian dominations already
present: the Roman Catholics and Greek Orthodox. xxxxx
said that the PA hoped that giving Russia land for cultural
and religious facilities would attract Russian tourists to
the West Bank.

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Working for the “Glory of Russia”

¶6. (U) xxxxx explained that while the GOR would formally
own the properties in Israel and the West Bank, the
non-governmental Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS)
would run the cultural and religious facilities. Although
the GOR referred to the IOPS, founded in 1872, as “one of the
oldest” Russian NGOs, the organization is not independent of
the government. The head of Russia’s Audit Chamber, Sergey
Stepashin, is Chairman of the IOPS and MFA Middle East
Department Deputy Director Oleg Ozerov heads its
international section. The MFA and IOPS signed a memorandum
of cooperation in June to facilitate GOR assistance to the
organization’s efforts to develop Russia’s “humanitarian,
scientific and cultural relations” with states in the Middle
East. During a June address, FM Lavrov highlighted IOPS’
role in “peoples’ diplomacy” that supplemented official
political contacts. He praised IOPS for helping Russia’s
spiritual revival and demonstrating that the country was an
“influential and respected power.” Lavrov closed, “In order
to worthily return to the Holy Land, we must work…to the
glory of Russia!”

¶7. (U) IOPS will depend financially upon Russian oligarchs,
including Roman Abramovich and Israeli resident Arkadiy
Gaidamak, both of whom reportedly agreed to the GOR request
that they pay expenses related to acquiring the compound in

Russian Emigres: A “Bridge” Between Russia and Israel
——————————————— ———

¶8. (C) xxxxx said that the immigration of Russian Jews to
Israel created a bond between the two countries that had a
profound impact on Russia-Israel relations. This did not
mean that those who fled Soviet anti-Semitism had pressured
their new homeland for closer ties with the country that had
repressed them. Instead they created in Israel a center of
Russian culture and formed a “bridge” between the countries.
xxxxx said that many
Russian-speakers in Israel maintained strong ties to their
homeland and some had even returned. The Israeli Embassy
estimated that “tens of thousands” of Israel’s
Russian-speakers currently live and work in Moscow. xxxxx
said that he personally knew many Russian-speaking Israelis
who came to participate in Russia’s economic boom. With
their knowledge of Russian language and culture, plus
university degrees and business experience gained in Israel,
Europe or the U.S., they could easily find opportunities here.

Emigres Create “Warm Feelings” for Israel

¶9. (C)xxxxx, differentiated the Jews who fled Soviet oppression
and anti-Semitism in the 1970s and 1980s from those who left
in the 1990s to avoid the chaos and uncertainty of
post-Soviet Russia. The latter group did not leave as
“ideological enemies” and maintained positive feelings for
their homeland. Thanks to cable television and the Internet,
they have been able to maintain contact with Russia. While
this has been the experience of Russian immigrants who landed
in different countries, xxxxx said it was especially
acute in Israel where Russian-speakers were one-seventh of
the population. This played well within Russia, where a
Russian cultural foothold in the Middle East generated “warm
feelings toward Israel.” During Israel’s 2006 war with
Lebanon, Russian television showed Russian-speaking Israeli
soldiers, which helped heighten Russian sympathy for Israel’s
situation. xxxxx cited public opinion polls that
showed Russians were more inclined to have a favorable
opinion of Israel than the U.S.

¶10. (C) xxxxx said that immigrants to Israel and
elsewhere extended Russia’s cultural reach, which the GOR
recognized as a means to project at least the perception of
influence. For example, the World Congress of Russian Jewry,
an organization that represents Russian Jews in 35 countries
and receives government support, met in May in Jerusalem
where Russian Federation Council member Boris Shpigle said
that Russian Jews must cultivate a special relationship with
their homeland. xxxxx stressed that with the exception
of Ukraine and the Baltic, where Russia had serious political
concerns, the GOR saw its compatriots abroad not as a “fifth
column” but as a bridge between their homeland and adopted
countries. In Israel, a country of which some of Russia’s
biggest oligarchs were citizens, the GOR hoped this would
provide opportunities for investment and give Russia access
to Israeli technology. Israeli investment might also come to

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Russia, as it did in the case of Lev Levayev, whose
development company is reportedly undertaking large-scale
projects in Moscow and will expand its existing jewelry
factory in Perm. xxxxx thought Russia-Israel trade,
which is estimated at $2.3 billion in 2006, could be several
times higher.

Immigration to Israel is “Dead”

¶11. (C) While Russia continues to benefit from the presence
of its existing emigres in Israel, Russian immigration to
Israel is “all but dead” according to Leonard Terlitskiy, the
Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society’s representative in the CIS.
Terlitskiy, who was among the first Jews to leave the USSR
during the Brezhnev era, told us that “anyone who wanted to
leave has already left.” The Russian economy offered enough
opportunities and anti-Semitism is not the problem it once
was, allowing Jews to remain where they face less chance of
becoming a victim of terrorism than they would in Israel.
Russian daily Vremya Novestey reported that in 2007, only
6,700 people immigrated from the CIS to Israel, compared to
34,000 in 2001. Meanwhile, 38,000 Israeli nationals were
known to have returned recently to live in Russia and the CIS.

¶12. (C) xxxxx thought that the prospect of visa-free travel
to Israel would allow Russian Jews to visit Israel and
develop an affinity for the country and their compatriots
there without the need to emigrate. Members of Moscow’s
Jewish community recently told Vremya Novestey that they saw
no need to emigrate and could always visit Israel on a

Russia Maintains “Pragmatic” Policies

¶13. (C) Observers noted that despite the increasing cultural
proximity of Russia and Israel, the GOR maintained its
“pragmatic” stance on weapons sales to Syria and contacts
with Hamas, despite Israeli opposition. This stemmed from
Moscow’s ability to compartmentalize aspects of a foreign
policy that fostered relations with Israel and Syria
simultaneously. xxxxx joked that perhaps Israel had evened
the score through military sales to Georgia, including
unmanned aerial drones, the shooting down of which recently
contributed to increasing tensions between Moscow and Tbilisi
(ref B). xxxxx and Israeli Emboffs told us separately that
military sales to Georgia were not an irritant in
Russia-Israel relations, although the GOR had asked Israel
not to sell offensive weapons systems to Tbilisi.

08CAIRO1637 2008-07-31 10:10 2010-11-28 18:06 CONFIDENTIAL Embassy Cairo

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C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 02 CAIRO 001637



E.O. 12958: DECL: 07/21/2018

Classified By: Ambassador Margaret Scobey, for reasons
1.4 (b) and (d).

¶1. (C) Summary: On July 2, Senator Kerry and the Ambassador
discussed regional developments with President Hosni Mubarak,
including Zimbabwe, Sudan, Iraq, Iran, and Israel-Palestine.
Mubarak said that Egypt was working to find a solution in
Sudan, but preferred to do so “quietly.” Mubarak warned
against a precipitous U.S. withdrawal from Iraq. While he
called Iranians “liars” and said they sponsor terrorism, he
opined that no Arab state would join the U.S. in a formal
defense alliance against Iran for fear of retaliation.
Mubarak expressed frustration with the Israeli-Palestinian
peace process, and was particularly disparaging about the
lack of Palestinian unity. End summary.

AU “Soft” on Mugabe

¶2. (C) In a 60-minute meeting with President Mubarak in Sharm
El-Sheikh, Senator Kerry began by asking for Mubarak’s views
on the discussions at the African Union Summit, which had
concluded in Sharm El-Sheikh the previous day. Mubarak said
he had been at the Summit until late in the evening and was
tired. He reported that some member states had condemned
Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe, while others told him to
form a national unity government and find a role for the
opposition parties. Mubarak said he couldn’t prevent Mugabe
from attending the conference in Egypt because Zimbabwe is a
member of the African Union. He said the British were behind
this “big fuss” and that the pressure from other African
leaders was “sufficiently soft that Mugabe can do what he

Sudan: Quiet Diplomacy Is Best

¶3. (C) In response to Senator Kerry’s query about the
situation in Sudan, Mubarak said the issue was not discussed
publicly at the AU summit. He also said “this issue could
have been worked out” if it were not debated so publicly
because “two tribes always work things out.” Mubarak noted
Egypt’s attempts to “try and help the (Sudanese) people”
through the Egyptian hospital in Sudan and the efforts of
EGIS Director Omar Suleiman to advise on North-South

Iraq: Don’t Pull Out Too Soon

¶4. (C) Turning to Iraq, Senator Kerry asked Mubarak if he had
changed his opinion of Prime Minister Al Maliki after Iraq’s
successful stabilization efforts in Basra and Sadr City.
Mubarak said he “I am not critical. He came to Cairo. I gave
him my phone number but he hasn’t called us.” He noted that
Egypt offered to host and train Iraqi forces, but that the
offer had not been acted upon by the Iraqis. He said the
U.S. “cannot withdraw until you strengthen the armed forces
and police. Until then you have to stay.”

Beware The Iranians

¶5. (C) Mubarak’s top concern for the stability of Iraq and
the region is Iran. He believes that “as a result of the
invasion of Iraq, Iran is spreading everywhere.” He urged the
U.S. to be wary of what Iran says. “They are big, fat liars
and justify their lies because they believe it is for a
higher purpose.” He said he believes this opinion is shared
by other leaders in the region. Nonetheless, he opined that
no Arab state will join the U.S. in a defense relationship
vis-a-vis Iran out of fear of “sabotage and Iranian
terrorism.” He said Iran’s sponsorship of terrorism is
“well-known but I cannot say it publicly. It would create a
dangerous situation.” Mubarak said that sanctions are the
best hope for containing Iran, but Arab states won’t dare to
endorse them.

Not Optimistic on The Peace Process

¶6. (C) On the Middle East Peace Process, Mubarak said he sees
no progress between Syria and Israel and doesn’t expect any
progress between Israel and the PA leadership. He said that
“Palestinians are quarrelling” and Hamas and other factions
will reject any agreement made by Abu Mazen. Senator Kerry

CAIRO 00001637 002 OF 002

suggested the parties appeared to be close in some areas. In
response, Mubarak reiterated he doesn’t believe the many
Palestinian factions will reach agreement and, thus, they
only serve to undermine Abu Mazen’s efforts.

¶7. (C) This cable was not cleared by CODEL Kerry.